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Table 14.6., State or condition timeline: It is unclear how the time information is stored in the interaction model. Especially if it is a continuous timeline. Please clarify the repository model for timing diagrams
The abbreviation sd for interaction diagrams should be renamed to id. sd stands for sequence diagram, but there three more interaction diagrams. It is confusing to have a diagram kind sd for a timing diagram.
As with database Chen, Bachman, and ISO ER diagrams, class models are specified to use \"look-across\" cardinalities, even though several authors (Merise, Elmasri & Navathe amongst others) prefer same-side or \"look-here\" for roles and both minimum and maximum cardinalities. Recent researchers (Feinerer, Dullea et al.) have shown that the \"look-across\" technique used by UML and ER diagrams is less effective and less coherent when applied to n-ary relationships of order strictly greater than 2.
Although UML 2.1 was never released as a formal specification, versions 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 appeared in 2007, followed by UML 2.2 in February 2009. UML 2.3 was formally released in May 2010. UML 2.4.1 was formally released in August 2011. UML 2.5 was released in October 2012 as an \"In progress\" version and was officially released in June 2015. Formal version 2.5.1 was adopted in December 2017.
It is important to distinguish between the UML model and the set of diagrams of a system. A diagram is a partial graphic representation of a system's model. The set of diagrams need not completely cover the model and deleting a diagram does not change the model. The model may also contain documentation that drives the model elements and diagrams (such as written use cases).
UML 2 has many types of diagrams, which are divided into two categories. Some types represent structural information, and the rest represent general types of behavior, including a few that represent different aspects of interactions. These diagrams can be categorized hierarchically as shown in the following class diagram:
Structure diagrams represent the static aspects of the system. It emphasizes the things that must be present in the system being modeled. Since structure diagrams represent the structure, they are used extensively in documenting the software architecture of software systems. For example, the component diagram describes how a software system is split up into components and shows the dependencies among these components.
Behavior diagrams represent the dynamic aspect of the system. It emphasizes what must happen in the system being modeled. Since behavior diagrams illustrate the behavior of a system, they are used extensively to describe the functionality of software systems. As an example, the activity diagram describes the business and operational step-by-step activities of the components in a system.
Interaction diagrams, a subset of behavior diagrams, emphasize the flow of control and data among the things in the system being modeled. For example, the sequence diagram shows how objects communicate with each other regarding a sequence of messages.
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I am using Astah to create sequece diagram of my system and I would like to delete the number in the front of the method name above the edge such as 2,2.1,2.1.1, 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199.1, 188.8.131.52.2, 184.108.40.206.3, 220.127.116.11.4: How can I get it
UML is not complete and it is not completely visual. Given some UML diagram, we can't be sure to understand depicted part or behavior of the system from the diagram alone. Some information could be intentionally omitted from the diagram, some information represented on the diagram could have different interpretations, and some concepts of UML have no graphical notation at all, so there is no way to depict those on diagrams.
For example, semantics of multiplicity of actors and multiplicity of use cases on use case diagrams is not defined precisely in the UML specification and could mean either concurrent or successive usage of use cases.
Activity diagrams and sequence diagrams were enhanced. Activities were redesigned to use a Petri-like semantics. Edges can now be contained in partitions. Partitions can be hierarchical and multidimensional. Explicitly modeled object flows are new.
For non-text content that is not covered by one of the other situations listed below, such as charts, diagrams, audio recordings, pictures, and animations, text alternatives can make the same information available in a form that can be rendered through any modality (for example, visual, auditory or tactile). Short and long text alternatives can be used as needed to convey the information in the non-text content. Note that prerecorded audio-only and prerecorded video-only files are covered here. Live-audio-only and Live-video-only files are covered below (see 3rd paragraph following this one).
2.1.1 Soil compositionWhen dry soil is crushed in the hand, it can be seen that it is composed of all kinds of particles of different sizes.Most of these particles originate from the degradation of rocks; they are called mineral particles. Some originate from residues of plants or animals (rotting leaves, pieces of bone, etc.), these are called organic particles (or organic matter). The soil particles seem to touch each other, but in reality have spaces in between. These spaces are called pores. When the soil is \"dry\", the pores are mainly filled with air. After irrigation or rainfall, the pores are mainly filled with water. Living material is found in the soil. It can be live roots as well as beetles, worms, larvae etc. They help to aerate the soil and thus create favourable growing conditions for the plant roots (Fig. 26).Fig. 26. The composition of the soil2.1.2 Soil profileIf a pit is dug in the soil, at least 1 m deep, various layers, different in colour and composition can be seen. These layers are called horizons. This succession of horizons is called the profile of the soil (Fig. 27).Fig. 27. The soil profileA very general and simplified soil profile can be described as follows:a. The plough layer (20 to 30 cm thick): is rich in organic matter and contains many live roots. This layer is subject to land preparation (e.g. ploughing, harrowing etc.) and often has a dark colour (brown to black).b. The deep plough layer: contains much less organic matter and live roots. This layer is hardly affected by normal land preparation activities. The colour is lighter, often grey, and sometimes mottled with yellowish or reddish spots.c. The subsoil layer: hardly any organic matter or live roots are to be found. This layer is not very important for plant growth as only a few roots will reach it.d. The parent rock layer: consists of rock, from the degradation of which the soil was formed. This rock is sometimes called parent material.The depth of the different layers varies widely: some layers may be missing altogether.2.1.3 Soil textureThe mineral particles of the soil differ widely in size and can be classified as follows:Name of the particlesSize limits in mmDistinguisable with naked eyegravellarger than 1obviouslysand1 to 0.5easilysilt0.5 to 0.002barelyclayless than 0.002impossibleThe amount of sand, silt and clay present in the soil determines the soil texture.In coarse textured soils: sand is predominant (sandy soils).In medium textured soils: silt is predominant (loamy soils).In fine textured soils: clay is predominant (clayey soils).In the field, soil texture can be determined by rubbing the soil between the fingers (see Fig. 28).Farmers often talk of light soil and heavy soil. A coarse-textured soil is light because it is easy to work, while a fine-textured soil is heavy because it is hard to work.Expression used by the farmerExpression used in literaturelightsandycoarsemediumloamymediumheavyclayeyfineThe texture of a soil is permanent, the farmer is unable to modify or change it.Fig. 28a. Coarse textured soil is gritty. Individual particules are loose and fall apart in the hand, even when moist.Fig. 28b. Medium textured soil feels very soft (like flour) when dry. It can be easily be pressed when wet and then feels silky.Fig. 28c. Fine textured soil sticks to the fingers when wet and can form a ball when pressed.2.1.4 Soil structureSoil structure refers to the grouping of soil particles (sand, silt, clay, organic matter and fertilizers) into porous compounds. These are called aggregates. Soil structure also refers to the arrangement of these aggregates separated by pores and cracks (Fig. 29).The basic types of aggregate arrangements are shown in Fig. 30, granular, blocky, prismatic, and massive structure.Fig. 29. The soil structureWhen present in the topsoil, a massive structure blocks the entrance of water; seed germination is difficult due to poor aeration. On the other hand, if the topsoil is granular, the water enters easily and the seed germination is better.In a prismatic structure, movement of the water in the soil is predominantly vertical and therefore the supply of water to the plant roots is usually poor.Unlike texture, soil structure is not permanent. By means of cultivation practices (ploughing, ridging, etc.), the farmer tries to obtain a granular topsoil structure for his fields.Fig. 30. Some examples of soil structures GRANULAR BLOCKY PRISMATIC MASSIVE 2.2 Entry of water into the soil 2.2.1 The infiltration process 2.2.2 Infiltration rate 2.2.3 Factors influencing the infiltration rate 59ce067264